Some obstacles that delay the empowerment of Arab women in politics; Political participation represents the most prestigious expression of democracy because it is based on the contribution of female citizens and citizens to behave in the issues of the city, neighborhood, or institution, and in addition, it is considered one of the necessary mechanisms to express the will of citizens and citizens, and the consecration of the sovereignty of the people, and also political participation is the basis of democracy and a basic appearance One of the manifestations of citizenship is among the most important components of the modern national state that distinguishes between democratic political systems that are based on citizenship and equality in rights and duties, and between totalitarian or authoritarian regimes that are based on the monopoly of power by a particular group.
However, Arab women in general face many difficulties that bear the traditional folk legacy, legal restrictions and limited official orientation that hinder the improvement of their status and their political empowerment, all of which comes in light of the lack of moral support for them and the absence of some governments ’support to cause real impacts on the political, cultural, developmental and social levels. It makes us say that the role of women in most Arab societies is lacking in health, which makes it difficult to achieve, and these are the things that most delay the comprehensive reform process and fair political participation between men and women.
The Egyptian constitution stressed the human right to dignity without distinction as to race, sex, religion, origin, disability, or even political affiliation, as the constitution affirmed that “the state guarantees equality and equal opportunities between men and women without distinction”, in accordance with articles (9, 11). The Constitution also affirmed that “discrimination is a crime punishable by law and called for the establishment of a mechanism to monitor all forms of discrimination” and women are the most segments of society that have suffered from it, so you will be the first to be provoked by this article, and in terms of participation in political life, the new constitution was keen to take The state measures to ensure adequate representation of women in parliament as defined by law, and a quarter of the number of seats has been allocated to women in the assembly, according to Article 180E, equivalent to 13,000 seats.
Here we see, the political participation of Arab women is substandard. In spite of the progress made in the situation of Arab women in the fields of health and education, these gains have not been matched by similar achievements in the field of the political field. The share of women in participating in public and political life in the Arab region is among the lowest in the regions of the world. On the ground, there is a very big gap between international trends and decisions and the reality of empowering Arab women politically.
A lot of challenges face women; Legal, political, Social and cultural obstacles a long side with Economic constraints. The most predominant of these obstacles is women’s lack of awareness of the importance of their role in life, particularly the political role as a result of the family and school education that the girl has received since childhood, Family responsibilities that lie with women alone and not with men. And the woman’s failure to develop her capabilities and self by distracting her with family matters at the expense of herself, Thinking about positions close to social responsibilities, Minister of Social Affairs and Minister of Women.
Some recommendations are summarized in:
- Empowering women economically, politically and socially through their involvement in society and their participation in decision-making.
- Activating the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and other international agreements that most states have ratified, but some of these countries still do not apply their provisions, but sometimes they totally contradict them.
- Emphasizing the legal rights of women, and developing the role of the judiciary concerned with family affairs, in a manner that guarantees the rights of women and the family.
- Equitable women by imposing equal opportunities in science and work, as are men without discrimination.
- A political awareness and empowerment program, and a quota system is required in some countries, even as a temporary solution, to ensure women’s entry into Arab parliaments.
- Supporting women in the electoral process and placing them on the electoral list.
- Non-legal and social discrimination and limiting the impact of traditions denying rights and the principles of constitutions.
- Promoting the concept of citizenship because it is a direct legal link between the individual and the state, in which men and women are equal.
- Amending the temporary election law, canceling the one vote, and equitable distribution of electoral districts.
- Empowering the women’s movement and lifting the ban on political activity.
- To help women examine their abilities and feel the importance of their roles in life, and to develop a policy for training and educating women.
- Ensuring rights in structures, frameworks and mechanisms.
- Establishing joint Arab action plans.
- Around a quarter of high government positions are reserved for women.
- Allocating one fifth of the parliamentary seats to women.
- Revise and amend legislation against discrimination.
- Attention to literacy programs, especially women’s programs.
- Broadcasting media for women’s issues to change the stereotype of women in the Arab media.
From the foregoing, we see that all parties should work towards achieving equality and justice for women, and this will only come with the participation of women in political affairs, public and civil life, which requires concerted efforts starting with the role and presence of women themselves effectively and not only by demand, and then the role of civil society in Creating public awareness and avoiding male and traditional culture, and the main role comes in providing the maximum possibilities and opportunities for women’s participation in decision-making, not proportional representation and limiting the irresponsible practices adopted by extremist religious groups.
This is what the state and political parties must abide by, then the role of funders in the necessity to diversify their agendas and provide material and moral support that helps women change their inferior perception in some societies. The most important thing we should pay attention to is the interest in working to increase the confidence of women in themselves and their capacities in the first place in order for them to achieve their goals and overcome all these obstacles that they face.